# How to Print All Permutations of a Given String in C, C++, JavaScript, and Pytho...

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# How to Print All Permutations of a Given String in C, C++, JavaScript, and Python

Published 9 hours ago

Need to print the permutations of a string? We'll show you how in several languages.

A permutation is an arrangement of objects in a specific order. You can permute a string of length n in n! ways.

In this article, you'll learn how to find all permutations of a given string using C++, Python, JavaScript, and C.

## How Do Permutations Work?

Let's say you have string str with “MUO” as the string values. You've been asked to show the string's permutations. Here's how you'd go about it:

Example 1: Let str = "MUO”

The permutations of “MUO” are:

• “MUO”
• "MOU"
• “UMO”
• “UOM”
• “OUM”
• “OMU”

Note the order of the values. Here's another example:

Example 2: Let str = "AB”

All the permutations of “AB” are:

You can also print duplicate permutations if there are repeating characters in the given string. (ABBA, for example)

Now that you understand how permutations work, let's take a look at how you can find them using your preferred programming language.

Note: We've designed the following code examples to output permutations for three strings: MUO, AB, and XYZ. If you'd like to use any of this code, copy it, and change these strings to fit your project.

## C++ Program to Print All Permutations of a String

Below is the C++ program to print all permutations of a string:

``// C++ program to print all// permutations of a string#include <bits/stdc++.h>using namespace std;// Function to print permutations of stringvoid findPermutations(string str, int leftIndex, int rightIndex){    if (leftIndex == rightIndex)    {        cout << str << endl;    }    else    {        for (int i = leftIndex; i <= rightIndex; i++)        {            swap(str[leftIndex], str[i]);            findPermutations(str, leftIndex+1, rightIndex);            //backtrack            swap(str[leftIndex], str[i]);        }    }}// Driver Codeint main(){    string str1 = "MUO";    int size1 = str1.size();    cout << "str1: " << str1 << endl;    cout << "Permutations of " << str1 << ":" << endl;    findPermutations(str1, 0, size1-1);    string str2 = "AB";    int size2 = str2.size();    cout << "str2: " << str2 << endl;    cout << "Permutations of " << str2 << ":" << endl;    findPermutations(str2, 0, size2-1);    string str3 = "XYZ";    int size3 = str3.size();    cout << "str3: " << str3 << endl;    cout << "Permutations of " << str3 << ":" << endl;    findPermutations(str3, 0, size3-1);    return 0;}``

Output:

``str1: MUOPermutations of MUO:MUOMOUUMOUOMOUMOMUstr2: ABPermutations of AB:ABBAstr3: XYZPermutations of XYZ:XYZXZYYXZYZXZYXZXY``

## Python Program to Print All Permutations of a String

Next, is the Python code to print all permutations of a string:

``# Python program to print all# permutations of a stringdef convertToString(List):    return ''.join(List)# Function to print permutations of stringdef findPermutations(s, leftIndex, rightIndex):    if leftIndex == rightIndex:        print(convertToString(s))    else:        for i in range(leftIndex, rightIndex+1):            s[leftIndex], s[i] = s[i], s[leftIndex]            findPermutations(s, leftIndex+1, rightIndex)            # backtrack            s[leftIndex], s[i] = s[i], s[leftIndex]# Driver Codestr1 = "MUO"size1 = len(str1)s1 = list(str1)print("str1:", str1)print("Permutations of", str1,":")findPermutations(s1, 0, size1-1)str2 = "AB"size2 = len(str2)s2 = list(str2)print("str2:", str2)print("Permutations of", str2,":")findPermutations(s2, 0, size2-1)str3 = "XYZ"size3 = len(str3)s3 = list(str3)print("str3:", str3)print("Permutations of", str3,":")findPermutations(s3, 0, size3-1)``

Output:

``str1: MUOPermutations of MUO:MUOMOUUMOUOMOUMOMUstr2: ABPermutations of AB:ABBAstr3: XYZPermutations of XYZ:XYZXZYYXZYZXZYXZXY``

## JavaScript Program to Print All Permutations of a String

Here's how you print permutations in JavaScript:

``// JavaScript program to print all// permutations of a string// Function to swap characters of the stringfunction swap(str, leftIndex, i) {    let temp;    let tempArray = str.split("");    temp = tempArray[leftIndex] ;    tempArray[leftIndex] = tempArray[i];    tempArray[i] = temp;    return (tempArray).join("");}// Function to print permutations of stringfunction findPermutations(str, leftIndex, rightIndex) {    if (leftIndex == rightIndex) {        document.write(str + "<br>");    } else {        for (let i = leftIndex; i <= rightIndex; i++) {            str = swap(str, leftIndex, i);            findPermutations(str, leftIndex+1, rightIndex);            //backtrack            str = swap(str, leftIndex, i);;        }    }}// Driver Codevar str1 = "MUO";var size1 = str1.length;document.write("str1: " + str1 + "<br>");document.write("Permutations of " + str1 + ":" + "<br>");findPermutations(str1, 0, size1-1);var str2 = "AB";var size2 = str2.length;document.write("str2: " + str2 + "<br>");document.write("Permutations of " + str2 + ":" + "<br>");findPermutations(str2, 0, size2-1);var str3 = "XYZ";var size3 = str3.length;document.write("str3: " + str3 + "<br>");document.write("Permutations of " + str3 + ":" + "<br>");findPermutations(str3, 0, size3-1);``

Output:

``str1: MUOPermutations of MUO:MUOMOUUMOUOMOUMOMUstr2: ABPermutations of AB:ABBAstr3: XYZPermutations of XYZ:XYZXZYYXZYZXZYXZXY``

## C Program to Print All Permutations of a String

Below is a C program that prints all permutations of a string:

``// C program to print all// permutations of a string#include <stdio.h>#include <string.h>// Function to swap characters of the stringvoid swap(char str[], int leftIndex, int i){    char temp = str[leftIndex];    str[leftIndex] = str[i];    str[i] = temp;}// Function to print permutations of stringvoid findPermutations(char str[], int leftIndex, int rightIndex){    if (leftIndex == rightIndex)    {        printf("%s \⁠n", str);    }    else    {        for (int i = leftIndex; i <= rightIndex; i++)        {            swap(str, leftIndex, i);            findPermutations(str, leftIndex+1, rightIndex);            //backtrack            swap(str, leftIndex, i);        }    }}// Driver Codeint main(){    char str1[] = "MUO";    int size1 = strlen(str1);    printf("str1: %s \⁠n", str1);    printf("Permutations of %s: \⁠n", str1);    findPermutations(str1, 0, size1-1);    char str2[] = "AB";    int size2 = strlen(str2);    printf("str2: %s \⁠n", str2);    printf("Permutations of %s: \⁠n", str2);    findPermutations(str2, 0, size2-1);    char str3[] = "XYZ";    int size3 = strlen(str3);    printf("str3: %s \⁠n", str3);    printf("Permutations of %s: \⁠n", str3);    findPermutations(str3, 0, size3-1);    return 0;}``

Output:

``str1: MUOPermutations of MUO:MUOMOUUMOUOMOUMOMUstr2: ABPermutations of AB:ABBAstr3: XYZPermutations of XYZ:XYZXZYYXZYZXZYXZXY``

## Printing Permutations Is Easy

In this article, you've learned how to print all permutations of a string in several programming languages. While these sample programs aren't the only way to handle permutations, they're a great start for those who are new to using them in their code. Yuvraj Chandra (58 Articles Published)

Yuvraj is a Computer Science undergraduate student at the University of Delhi, India. He's passionate about Full Stack Web Development. When he's not writing, he's exploring the depth of different technologies.