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Rails 7 adds disable_joins: true option to has_many :through association

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原文链接: https://blog.saeloun.com/2021/05/04/rails-add-option-to-disable-joins-for-associations

Rails 7 adds disable_joins: true option to has_many :through association

May 4, 2021 , by Santanu Karmakar 4 minute read

We often use multiple databases in our Rails application. Rails 6 made it easier to connect to multiple databases.

Let’s consider a use case where:

  • User can create multiple posts.
  • Anyone looking at the post can add a comment - crowd-sourced comments.

In this case, we can store the crowd-sourced comments in a separate database, as comments can grow quickly and may need a different kind of data management approach.

The database.yml can be like below:

default: &default
  adapter: postgresql
  encoding: unicode
  pool: <%= ENV.fetch("RAILS_MAX_THREADS") { 5 } %>
  username: root
  password: password

development:
  primary:
    <<: *default
    database: rails_demo_development
  crowd_sourced:
    <<: *default
    migrations_paths: db/migrate_crowd_sourced
    database: rails_demo_crowd_sourced_development

The models would look like below:

# app/models/application_record.rb
class ApplicationRecord < ActiveRecord::Base
  self.abstract_class = true
  connects_to database: { writing: :primary, reading: :primary }
end
# app/models/crowd_sourced_record.rb
class CrowdSourcedRecord < ActiveRecord::Base
  self.abstract_class = true
  connects_to database: { writing: :crowd_sourced, reading: :crowd_sourced }
end
# app/models/user.rb
class User < ApplicationRecord
  has_many :posts
end
# app/models/user.rb
class Post < ApplicationRecord
  belongs_to :user
  has_many :comments
end
# app/models/comment.rb
class Comment < CrowdSourcedRecord
end

Before

In Rails 6, to fetch comments on all posts of a user, we can add a custom method, as associations can’t join across databases.

# app/models/user.rb
class User < ApplicationRecord
  has_many :posts

  def comments
    Comment.where(post_id: posts.pluck(:id))
  end
end

Here, we are fetching the user-created post ids first, and then all the comments for those post ids.

> User.first.comments
  User Load (0.3ms)  SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY "users"."id" ASC LIMIT $1  [["LIMIT", 1]]
   (0.2ms)  SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" = $1  [["user_id", 1]]
  Comment Load (0.3ms)  SELECT "comments".* FROM "comments" WHERE "comments"."post_id" = $1 /* loading for inspect */ LIMIT $2  [["post_id", 1], ["LIMIT", 11]]
 => #<ActiveRecord::Relation [#<Comment id: 1, post_id: 1, name: "Chantay Hayes", email: "ronna.dooley@friesen.us"...>]>

For all such associations across different databases we will have to add custom methods as above.

After

Rails 7 has added an option in has many through association to find the elegant way to solve the problem of multiple database joining. We can use the has_many :through association with the newly added disable_joins: true option like below:

class User < ApplicationRecord
  has_many :posts
  has_many :comments, through: :posts, disable_joins: true
end

If we try to load the associations now, it fires 2 separate queries to load the post ids, and the comments with those post ids.

> User.first.comments
  User Load (0.3ms)  SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY "users"."id" ASC LIMIT $1  [["LIMIT", 1]]
  Post Pluck (0.3ms)  SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" = $1  [["user_id", 1]]
  Comment Load (0.3ms)  SELECT "comments".* FROM "comments" WHERE "comments"."post_id" = $1 /* loading for inspect */ LIMIT $2  [["post_id", 1], ["LIMIT", 11]]
 => #<ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionProxy [#<Comment id: 1, post_id: 1, name: "Chantay Hayes", email: "ronna.dooley@friesen.us", .....]>

This allows us to eager load the comments. But if we iterate through the users, and try to load the comments there’s an additional query fired to select the post ids of the user.

> users = User.limit(5).includes(:comments).load
  User Load (0.2ms)  SELECT "users".* FROM "users" LIMIT $1  [["LIMIT", 5]]
  Post Load (0.2ms)  SELECT "posts".* FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" IN ($1, $2, $3, $4, $5)  [["user_id", 1], ["user_id", 2], ["user_id", 3], ["user_id", 4], ["user_id", 5]]
  Comment Load (0.2ms)  SELECT "comments".* FROM "comments" WHERE "comments"."post_id" IN ($1, $2, $3, $4, $5)  [["post_id", 1], ["post_id", 2], ["post_id", 3], ["post_id", 4], ["post_id", 5]]
 => #<ActiveRecord::Relation [#<User id: 1, name: "Milton Dicki", email: "lyman@heller.us", created_at: "2021-04-20 17:13:20.492541000 +0000", updated_at: "2021-04-20 17:13:20.492541000...

> users.collect &:comments
  Post Pluck (0.2ms)  SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" = $1  [["user_id", 1]]
  Post Pluck (0.1ms)  SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" = $1  [["user_id", 2]]
  Post Pluck (0.1ms)  SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" = $1  [["user_id", 3]]
  Post Pluck (0.1ms)  SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" = $1  [["user_id", 4]]
  Post Pluck (0.1ms)  SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" = $1  [["user_id", 5]]
 => [#<ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionProxy [#<Comment id: 1, post_id: 1, name: "Chantay Hayes", email: "ronna.dooley@friesen.us">.......]>]

Though, there’s a workaround to solve this N+1 query issue, with the cost of loading associated posts in the memory like below:

> users = User.limit(5).includes(posts: :comments).load
  User Load (0.2ms)  SELECT "users".* FROM "users" LIMIT $1  [["LIMIT", 5]]
  Post Load (0.3ms)  SELECT "posts".* FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" IN ($1, $2, $3, $4, $5)  [["user_id", 1], ["user_id", 2], ["user_id", 3], ["user_id", 4], ["user_id", 5]]
  Comment Load (0.3ms)  SELECT "comments".* FROM "comments" WHERE "comments"."post_id" IN ($1, $2, $3, $4, $5)  [["post_id", 1], ["post_id", 2], ["post_id", 3], ["post_id", 4], ["post_id", 5]]
 => #<ActiveRecord::Relation [#<User id: 1, name: "Milton Dicki", email: "lyman@heller.us", created_at: "2021-04-20 17:13:20.492541000 +0000", updated_at: "2021-04-20 17:13:20.492541000...

> users.collect { |u| u.posts.collect(&:comments) }.flatten
 => [#<Comment id: 1, post_id: 1, name: "Chantay Hayes", email: "ronna.dooley@friesen.us", comment: "Bad song!".....>]

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